1. The information is amazing. Great logical structure.
    I only have a minor problem with the seizure-inducing pink.

    1. Haha this comment made me laugh. I’m glad you find the information helpful! You are in luck with regard to the pink, because I am currently in the process of redoing the colors and the pink will be changing to purple.

  2. Oh SO incredibly helpful. Thank you! I’ve been watching online Latin Lectures and these posts are so helpful for the questions I have that the lecturer didn’t answer. lol Thanks again! 🙂

    1. You are very welcome, Monica, and thank you for your kind words! The goal for this site is to answer the questions that tend to fall through the cracks, so it’s great to know my posts are helping 🙂

  3. As a PhD candidate in Hebrew Bible, I occasionally need to “dip into” Latin for a few terms here and there. I find this site very helpful. Thank you, Livia!

    1. I am happy to be able to help, Daniel! Hebrew is on my learning list for some day – so far my only experience with a Semitic language has been Akkadian.

  4. Absolutely fantastic post. Thank you. There are a few broken links, however.

    1. I’m glad the post was helpful, Taylor! Thank you so much for letting me know about the broken links – they should be fixed now.

  5. In an exam, without a dictionary to tell you the genetive singular, is there anyway you can work out the declension of a noun? Thanks!

    1. Hi Felix, if you don’t know the genitive singular, things become much harder, and sometimes it is impossible to know the declension for sure. But here is my advice:

      1. Look at the case ending on the noun. Some case endings are only found in certain declensions. Ae, am, ārum, and ās only show up in the first declension, while ō, ōrum, and ōs only belong to the second declension. E / ē and ēs can be either third or fifth declension, but fifth declension nouns are much rarer so this ending likely signals third declension.

      The problem is that many endings can appear in multiple declensions. For example, -a could be a first declension noun in the nominative (or ablative, if macrons aren’t marked), but it could also be a neuter noun of the second, third, or fourth declension in the nominative/accusative plural. -um could be accusative singular of the second or fourth declension (+ nominative singular neuter of the second) OR genitive plural of third declension.

      2. Once you have used the ending to narrow down your options, look at the overall context of the sentence. What case would make sense? If you have a noun ending in -um, check to see if the logic of the sentence requires an accusative, nominative, or genitive.

      This is really all you can do if you don’t have access to a dictionary. I know it is frustrating on exams if there is new vocabulary, but try to focus on what you know about the sentence and then fill in the gaps in your knowledge by guesswork.

  6. Why is there not an example of a 5th declension pluralia tantum noun?

    1. The answer is that I honestly cannot think of one and I haven’t been able to find one in my research, either. There aren’t as many 5th declension nouns in Latin in general, so it wouldn’t surprise me if pluralia tantum nouns simply didn’t exist in that declension.

      If you or anyone else knows of an example, I can add it!

  7. Peter Popoola says:

    Great work! Please keep it up and keep it simple as you have done here. Thanks.

    1. Thanks for stopping by, Peter! My goal is to explain everything as clearly and simply as possible!

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